Download Battlefield Vietnam Full Version Games

Battlefield Vietnam Free Games Download – On 2 September 1945 in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent in general.
When the communist Viet Minh in South Vietnam involving the French colonial administration in a guerrilla war, began right after the declaration of independence, Ho Chi Minh, in his position as leader of the independence movement in North Vietnam, decided to negotiate with France.
The reason is: at that time more than 180,000 Chinese Nationalist troops in North Vietnam; Viet Minh in North Vietnam are simultaneously liberalizing them to resist the force of the colonial French and Chinese troops.
In 1946, after the rebuilding French colonial rule in Vietnam, Chinese nationalists agree on a Chinese troops from Vietnam.
This has happened, Viet Minh increase their attacks against French colonial forces and installations in South and North Vietnam. When the French succeed in keeping the city under their control, the countryside is increasingly ruled by the Viet Minh.
20 November 1953, the French colonial forces of 16,000 troops in Bien Phu, a valley in the mountains along the border of northern Vietnam and northern Laos. Of Dien Bien Phu, France intends to monitor the border between the two countries.

This was deemed necessary because the Viet Minh did communist movement furnished with weapons in Laos, the Pathet Lao.
French military believes the valley of Dien Bien Phu, 19 kilometers long and 13 kilometers wide, safe from attacks by the Viet Minh. But in the weeks and months that followed, Vietnamese forces under the command of General Giap, preparing attack on Dien Bien Phu.

With the help of more than 200,000 people porters, Viet Minh arrange transport heavy artillery into the mountains surrounding the valley of Dien Bien Phu.
In March 1954, the Viet Minh launch their attack against French forces at Dien Bien Phu. On May 7, 1954, they had conquered the French command center. 9500 French colonial troops captured. It was the worst defeat in the history of French colonial forces.

More than 20,000 Viet Minh and the French more than 3,000 people were killed in the battle at Dien Bien Phu. War between Viet Minh with France that lasted for nine years, has killed a very large. More than a million civilians, 200,000 to 300,000 Viet Minh and more than 95,000 French colonial troops had lost their lives.

On July 20, 1954 in Geneva, negotiators Viet Minh and the French agreed to divide Vietnam into two countries: a communist North Vietnam and capitalist South Vietnam.
In 1959-1963, after the South Vietnamese communist guerrillas to overthrow the Diem government, the communist government of North Vietnam in control of the military confrontation.
More than 40,000 North Vietnamese guerrillas into the southern region, and provide weapons and ammunition to the communist South Vietnam, which is carried through the streets of Ho Chi Minh in the small area of ​​Laos and Cambodia.
In 1961, newly elected U.S. president, Kennedy sends 100 military advisors first along with a special unit of 400 troops to Vietnam. The following year, the U.S. increased the number of troops in Vietnam to 11,000 soldiers.
On August 2, 1964, two American cruisers fired at by patrol boats of North Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. Americans insist that cruise ships were in international waters. And the incident as an excuse to bomb North Vietnam for the first time.
Only in 1971, it is known that two American warships had violated the territorial waters of North Vietnam.
In March 1965, U.S. warplanes launch Operation Rolling Thunder, a massive bombing of North Vietnam. About three and a half years later, the bombs dropped on North Vietnam two times more in number than the number of bombs dropped in World War II.
To reduce the development of industry and population of the country, North Vietnam and the decentralization of economic total number of people evacuated from the cities.
The peak of the Vietnam War in 1968, when the U.S. sent nearly half a million troops to Vietnam. Force Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, the Philippines and Thailand are all numbered 90,000 people. And when the army of South Vietnam numbered 1.5 million people.

National Liberation Front under the leadership of communist Vietcong named by the U.S., with 400,000 troops.
On February 1, 1968, the National Liberation Army forces launch the Tet offensive in 105 towns and cities in South Vietnam. Although the Vietcong were driven back and defeated (except in Hué), the Tet offensive was a turning point in the Vietnam War.
Tet Offensive resulted in changes in the U.S. position. After the Tet offensive, the U.S. government is not interested in winning the war. But they just do not want to lose his reputation as a great military power.
Through a U.S. military operation, the U.S. air force bombing of North Vietnam, and ended in October 1968. The U.S. began to withdraw its forces from Vietnam.
In 1969 in Paris, the U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Vietcong in negotiations to withdraw all U.S. troops from Vietnam.
In 1972, before the Paris negotiations to bring results, the U.S. has reduced its forces by 100,000 people from Vietnam.
Dated March 30, 1972, a communist, but not by the Vietcong but by North Vietnamese troops crossing the demarcation line (17 degrees north latitude) to invade South Vietnam. The bombings were carried out continuously by U.S. warplanes, has led to the withdrawal of North Vietnamese troops.
On January 27, 1973, a ceasefire agreement was signed in Paris and came into effect from that day. In March 1973, the last American troops left Vietnam.
Two years later, North Vietnam and South communist forces began the attack with the intention of controlling the state of South Vietnam. A few weeks later, on 30 April 1975, North Vietnamese troops occupied Saigon and the resulting end of the war has been going on for thirty years.
In the event the Vietnam War, has been growing arsenal including the use of jet fighter planes even have entered the era of supersonic jets.
U.S. uses F-105 and F-4 Phantom to face the Russian aircraft consisting of the MiG-17 and MiG-21.
In the Vietnam War this was the first time it is used on a large-scale surface-to-air missile (SAM) as one important component in air defense system. Electronic technology has also become very influential in this war started many use of laser-guided bombs and an optically-guided.
Similarly, the use missile detection system and radar-jamming countermeasures. Also rockets both air-to-air and the air-to-ground.
Use as a base carrier fighter planes being so instrumental compared to what was done in World War II.
Besides, the Vietnam War is to develop systems to aircraft refueling in the air by a tanker aircraft as U.S. efforts to increase the radius of action and the ability to maneuver the fighter planes against planes Russian products.

In the event the Vietnam War the U.S. looks a little overwhelmed in the face of the power of the fighter planes made by Russia. For air-to-air combat Vietnam using MIG-17 and MiG-19, while the United States rely on F-4 Phantom her.
Other U.S. aircraft were involved in the Vietnam war include F-100, OV-10 Bronco, C-123, C-130 and C-7 Trash Haulers, but it is also used F-105, F-111 and B-52 as bomber.
In the Vietnam War was also the helicopter rose into a weapon to combat a significant role in the development of observation missions, tactical combat and combat medical evacuation transport.
It was also notable in the Vietnam war, the development of C-47 Dakota aircraft armed 12.7 mm caliber machine guns in the tail, so much help in the movement of ground forces, the aircraft is known then the C-47 gun-ship.
In this war Russia 2300 held surface-to-air missiles, thousands of counterforce air strikes various calibers and not less than 180 MiG aircraft.

Trailer :

Minimum System 
Processor: Intel Pentium III 933MHz 
Graphics Card: Display Adapter with 64MB memory 
Memory: 256MB 
Operating System: Microsoft Windows 98
Recommended System 
Processor: Intel Pentium III 1.2GHz 
Graphics Card: Display Adapter with 64MB memory 
Memory: 512MB 
Operating System: Microsoft Windows XP
To Download This Games Visit Below :
Password : ripgamescenter
Copy link to the new tab in your browser
Any problem , leave comment below
Enjoy The Games , Thanks :)
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Download Battlefield Vietnam Full Version Games

Battlefield Vietnam Free Games Download – On 2 September 1945 in Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnam independent in general.
When the communist Viet Minh in South Vietnam involving the French colonial administration in a guerrilla war, began right after the declaration of independence, Ho Chi Minh, in his position as leader of the independence movement in North Vietnam, decided to negotiate with France.
The reason is: at that time more than 180,000 Chinese Nationalist troops in North Vietnam; Viet Minh in North Vietnam are simultaneously liberalizing them to resist the force of the colonial French and Chinese troops.
In 1946, after the rebuilding French colonial rule in Vietnam, Chinese nationalists agree on a Chinese troops from Vietnam.
This has happened, Viet Minh increase their attacks against French colonial forces and installations in South and North Vietnam. When the French succeed in keeping the city under their control, the countryside is increasingly ruled by the Viet Minh.
20 November 1953, the French colonial forces of 16,000 troops in Bien Phu, a valley in the mountains along the border of northern Vietnam and northern Laos. Of Dien Bien Phu, France intends to monitor the border between the two countries.

battlefield-vietnam-vantage-point-04-wallpaper-1920-x-1080

This was deemed necessary because the Viet Minh did communist movement furnished with weapons in Laos, the Pathet Lao.
French military believes the valley of Dien Bien Phu, 19 kilometers long and 13 kilometers wide, safe from attacks by the Viet Minh. But in the weeks and months that followed, Vietnamese forces under the command of General Giap, preparing attack on Dien Bien Phu.

With the help of more than 200,000 people porters, Viet Minh arrange transport heavy artillery into the mountains surrounding the valley of Dien Bien Phu.
In March 1954, the Viet Minh launch their attack against French forces at Dien Bien Phu. On May 7, 1954, they had conquered the French command center. 9500 French colonial troops captured. It was the worst defeat in the history of French colonial forces.

More than 20,000 Viet Minh and the French more than 3,000 people were killed in the battle at Dien Bien Phu. War between Viet Minh with France that lasted for nine years, has killed a very large. More than a million civilians, 200,000 to 300,000 Viet Minh and more than 95,000 French colonial troops had lost their lives.

On July 20, 1954 in Geneva, negotiators Viet Minh and the French agreed to divide Vietnam into two countries: a communist North Vietnam and capitalist South Vietnam.
In 1959-1963, after the South Vietnamese communist guerrillas to overthrow the Diem government, the communist government of North Vietnam in control of the military confrontation.
More than 40,000 North Vietnamese guerrillas into the southern region, and provide weapons and ammunition to the communist South Vietnam, which is carried through the streets of Ho Chi Minh in the small area of ​​Laos and Cambodia.
In 1961, newly elected U.S. president, Kennedy sends 100 military advisors first along with a special unit of 400 troops to Vietnam. The following year, the U.S. increased the number of troops in Vietnam to 11,000 soldiers.
On August 2, 1964, two American cruisers fired at by patrol boats of North Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin. Americans insist that cruise ships were in international waters. And the incident as an excuse to bomb North Vietnam for the first time.
Only in 1971, it is known that two American warships had violated the territorial waters of North Vietnam.
In March 1965, U.S. warplanes launch Operation Rolling Thunder, a massive bombing of North Vietnam. About three and a half years later, the bombs dropped on North Vietnam two times more in number than the number of bombs dropped in World War II.
To reduce the development of industry and population of the country, North Vietnam and the decentralization of economic total number of people evacuated from the cities.
The peak of the Vietnam War in 1968, when the U.S. sent nearly half a million troops to Vietnam. Force Australia, New Zealand, South Korea, the Philippines and Thailand are all numbered 90,000 people. And when the army of South Vietnam numbered 1.5 million people.

National Liberation Front under the leadership of communist Vietcong named by the U.S., with 400,000 troops.
On February 1, 1968, the National Liberation Army forces launch the Tet offensive in 105 towns and cities in South Vietnam. Although the Vietcong were driven back and defeated (except in Hué), the Tet offensive was a turning point in the Vietnam War.
Tet Offensive resulted in changes in the U.S. position. After the Tet offensive, the U.S. government is not interested in winning the war. But they just do not want to lose his reputation as a great military power.
Through a U.S. military operation, the U.S. air force bombing of North Vietnam, and ended in October 1968. The U.S. began to withdraw its forces from Vietnam.
In 1969 in Paris, the U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Vietcong in negotiations to withdraw all U.S. troops from Vietnam.
In 1972, before the Paris negotiations to bring results, the U.S. has reduced its forces by 100,000 people from Vietnam.
Dated March 30, 1972, a communist, but not by the Vietcong but by North Vietnamese troops crossing the demarcation line (17 degrees north latitude) to invade South Vietnam. The bombings were carried out continuously by U.S. warplanes, has led to the withdrawal of North Vietnamese troops.
On January 27, 1973, a ceasefire agreement was signed in Paris and came into effect from that day. In March 1973, the last American troops left Vietnam.
Two years later, North Vietnam and South communist forces began the attack with the intention of controlling the state of South Vietnam. A few weeks later, on 30 April 1975, North Vietnamese troops occupied Saigon and the resulting end of the war has been going on for thirty years.

In the event the Vietnam War, has been growing arsenal including the use of jet fighter planes even have entered the era of supersonic jets.
U.S. uses F-105 and F-4 Phantom to face the Russian aircraft consisting of the MiG-17 and MiG-21.
In the Vietnam War this was the first time it is used on a large-scale surface-to-air missile (SAM) as one important component in air defense system. Electronic technology has also become very influential in this war started many use of laser-guided bombs and an optically-guided.
Similarly, the use missile detection system and radar-jamming countermeasures. Also rockets both air-to-air and the air-to-ground.
Use as a base carrier fighter planes being so instrumental compared to what was done in World War II.
Besides, the Vietnam War is to develop systems to aircraft refueling in the air by a tanker aircraft as U.S. efforts to increase the radius of action and the ability to maneuver the fighter planes against planes Russian products.

In the event the Vietnam War the U.S. looks a little overwhelmed in the face of the power of the fighter planes made by Russia. For air-to-air combat Vietnam using MIG-17 and MiG-19, while the United States rely on F-4 Phantom her.
Other U.S. aircraft were involved in the Vietnam war include F-100, OV-10 Bronco, C-123, C-130 and C-7 Trash Haulers, but it is also used F-105, F-111 and B-52 as bomber.
In the Vietnam War was also the helicopter rose into a weapon to combat a significant role in the development of observation missions, tactical combat and combat medical evacuation transport.
It was also notable in the Vietnam war, the development of C-47 Dakota aircraft armed 12.7 mm caliber machine guns in the tail, so much help in the movement of ground forces, the aircraft is known then the C-47 gun-ship.
In this war Russia 2300 held surface-to-air missiles, thousands of counterforce air strikes various calibers and not less than 180 MiG aircraft.

Trailer :

Minimum System Requirements :

Processor: Intel Pentium III 933MHz

Graphics Card: Display Adapter with 64MB memory

Memory: 256MB

Operating System: Microsoft Windows 98

Recommended System

Processor: Intel Pentium III 1.2GHz

Graphics Card: Display Adapter with 64MB memory

Memory: 512MB

Operating System: Microsoft Windows XP

To Download This Games Visit Below :

Copy link to the new tab in your browser

Any problem , leave comment below

Enjoy The Games , Thanks

Laporan Kimia Pangan Materi Kadar Air


 PENDAHULUAN
     Latar Belakang
Air merupakan molekul luar biasa yang sangat esensial bagi kehidupan melarutkan dan memodifikasi sifat-sifat biomolekul seperti asam nukleat. protein, serta karbohidrat melalui pembentukan ikatan hydrogen dengan gugus fungsionalnya yang bersifat polar (Robert, 2003).
            Air merupakan bahan yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan dan fungsinya tidak pernah dapat digantikan oleh senyawa lain. Air juga merupakan komponen penting dalam bahan pangan karena air dapat dipengaruhi penampakan, tekstur dan cita rasa makanan (Winarno, 2004).
      Air bebas terdapat pada ruang-ruang antar sel dan plasma. Air bebas ini melarutkan berbagai vitamin, garam mineral, dan senyawa- seyawa nitrogen tertentu. Air terikat terdapat dalam beberapa bentuk, yaitu Terikat secara kiliawi atau molekuler, Terikat secara fisikokimiawi dan  Terikat karena daya kapiler (Hadiwiyoto, 1993).
Air merupakan komponen penting dalam bahan pangan yang berwujud dalam berbagai bentuk dan jumlah yang berbeda. Air dapat berupa komponen interseluler atau ekstraseluler dari bahan nabati dan hwani. Air dapat berfungsi sebagai medium pelarut dalam berbagai pru=oduk pangan sebagai fase terdispersi dalam produk emulsi (misalnya butter) dan margarine atau produk pangan kering. Air dalam bahan pangan berperan dalam mempengaruhi tangkat kesegaran, stabilitas, keawetan dan kemudahan terjadinya reaksi kimia, aktivitas enzim dan pertumbuhan mikroba (Kusnandar, 2010).
     Maksud dan tujuan
Maksud dari praktikum kimia pangan dengan materi kadar air yaitu agar praktikan mengetahui jenis air dalam bahan pangan.
Tujuan dari praktikum ini yaitu untuk mempelajari berbagai jenis atau tipe air dalam bahan pangan.
Ö      Air imbibisi
Ö     Air bebas dan terikat
Ö      Air Kristal
Ö      Aktivitas air
1   Waktu dan tempat
Praktikum kimia pangan dengan materi kadar air dilaksanakan pada 24-25 september 2012 pukul 08.00 WIB – 18.00 WIB di laboratorium THP Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Brawijaya, Malang.


 PEMBAHASAN

 Analisa Prosedur

            Dalam praktium  materi kadar air  prosedur kerjanya yaitu pertama siapkan alat dan bahan. Alat yang digunakan adalah oven, desikator, washing bottle, tabung reaksi, botol timbang, dan tutupnya, timbangan analitik, rak  tabung reaksi, water bath, beker gelas 100 ml, crushable tank, pengaduk, stopwatch, beer gelas 100 ml, cawan petri, penjempit kayu, wadah plastic, dan thermometer. Bahan yang digunakan adalah air, silikagel, kertas label, agar sukrosa tepung beras, tapioca, dan trigu.

            Lalu sampel yang telah dipersiapkan yaitu tepung beras, tepung trigu, tapioca, dan agar masing-masing diberi campuran air deng`n perbandingan 1:90, 2:80, 3:70. Dan 4:60. Selain itu sampel juga dicampur dengan sukrosa dengan perbandingan 1:9:1, 2:8:2, 3:7:3, 4:6:4.

            Setelah dilakukan pencampuran masing-masing campuran sampel diambil 5 ml dan dimasukan kedalam tabung reaksi lalu tutup dan panaskan dalam water bath suhu 40,60, dan 100 c. lalu amati proses yang terjadi setiap 5 menit selama 30 menit dan didiamkan selama semalam.

            Keringkan botol timbang dalam oven suhu 105 c selama semalam dengan tutup setengah terbuka lalu di masukkan desikator selama 10-15 menit dan timbang berat botol timbang sebagai a.

            Lalu dimasukkan sampel kedalal botol timbang dan ditimbang sampel dengan botol sebagai b. sampel dan botol timbang ditimbang sebagai berat c. lalu hitung kadar air dan dicatat hasilnya.

            Menurut sudarmaji et al(2003), kadar air dalam bahan pangan ditentukan dengan cara berikut :
·         Metode Pengeringan (termografimetri)
·         Metode Destilasi(Tormografimetri)
·         Metode Kimiawi
·         Metode Fisis
·         Metode Khusus misal kromatografi nuklir magnetic resonansi
Kandungan air dalam bahan pangan ikut menentukan accept tabiliti, kesegaran, dan daya tahan pangan. Selain merupakan bagian dari suatu bahan pangan, air merupakan pencuci yang baik bagi bahan makanan atau alat yang akan digunakan dalam pengolahannya. Sebagian besar dari perubahan bahan pangan terjadi dalam media air ditambahkan atau berasal dari pangan itu sendiri(winarno,2004)
Analisa Hasil
           Dalam praktium  materi kadar air  di dapat hasil pada kelompo satu dengan sampel tepung tapioca didapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 28, 33 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 30,003 gr, berat sampel 1,67 gr, berat akhir 29,6504 gr dan hasil 21,07 %.
           Pada kelompok dua dengan sampel tepung beras di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 41,539 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 43,3293 gr, berat sampel 1,79 gr, berat akhir 42,4784 gr dan hasil 47,52 %.
           Pada kelompok tiga dengan sampel tepung terigu di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 26,306 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven  26,913 gr, berat sampel 1,66 gr, berat akhir 26,2509 gr dan hasil  43,31 %.
           Pada kelompok empat dengan sampel tepung beras di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 41,380 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 43,089 gr, berat sampel 1,709 gr, berat akhir 42,7646 gr dan hasil 62,66 %.
           Pada kelompok lima dengan sampel tepung beras di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 35,7789 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 36,559  gr, berat sampel 1,780 gr, berat akhir  35,9456 gr  dan hasil  78,63 %.
            Dari data pengamatan didapat hasil kandungan air paling tinggi adalah 78,63 % pada kelompok 5 dengan sampel agar dan paling rendah yaitu 21,07 % pada kelompok 1 dengan sampel tepung maizena karena tepung maizena mengandung amilosa yang tinggi sehingga amilopektin rendah dan pada agar adalah sebaliknya.



PENUTUP


 Kesimpulan


Dari praktium  materi kadar air yang telah dilaksankan, didapat kesimpulan yaitu :

ü  Air merupakan bahan yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan manusia dan fungsinya tidak pernah dapat digantikan oleh senyawa lain

ü  Air digolongkan menjadi 4 jenis, yaitu :
a)      Air terikat : air yang terikat dengan unsure lain
b)      Air bebas : air yang tidak terikat seluruhnya oleh unsure lain
c)      Air murni : air yang tidak terikat dengan unsur-unsur lain
d)     Air yang terikat dengan jaringan matrix
ü  Air imbibisi adalah air yang masuk ke dalam bahan pangan dan menyebabkan pengembanhan volume tapi air ini tidak merupakan komponen penyusun bahan tersebut
ü  Kandungan air dalam bahan pangan mempengaruhi daya tahan bahan pangan terhadap serangan mikroba yang dinyatakan dengan Aw.
 Saran
Pada praktium  materi kadar air diharapkan agar alat pratikum dilengkapi agar pelaksaan praktikum bisa lancer dan maksimal.

 

Laporan Kimia Pangan Materi Kadar Air

 PENDAHULUAN

     Latar Belakang

Air merupakan molekul luar biasa yang sangat esensial bagi kehidupan melarutkan dan memodifikasi sifat-sifat biomolekul seperti asam nukleat. protein, serta karbohidrat melalui pembentukan ikatan hydrogen dengan gugus fungsionalnya yang bersifat polar (Robert, 2003).

            Air merupakan bahan yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan dan fungsinya tidak pernah dapat digantikan oleh senyawa lain. Air juga merupakan komponen penting dalam bahan pangan karena air dapat dipengaruhi penampakan, tekstur dan cita rasa makanan (Winarno, 2004).

      Air bebas terdapat pada ruang-ruang antar sel dan plasma. Air bebas ini melarutkan berbagai vitamin, garam mineral, dan senyawa- seyawa nitrogen tertentu. Air terikat terdapat dalam beberapa bentuk, yaitu Terikat secara kiliawi atau molekuler, Terikat secara fisikokimiawi dan  Terikat karena daya kapiler (Hadiwiyoto, 1993).

Air merupakan komponen penting dalam bahan pangan yang berwujud dalam berbagai bentuk dan jumlah yang berbeda. Air dapat berupa komponen interseluler atau ekstraseluler dari bahan nabati dan hwani. Air dapat berfungsi sebagai medium pelarut dalam berbagai pru=oduk pangan sebagai fase terdispersi dalam produk emulsi (misalnya butter) dan margarine atau produk pangan kering. Air dalam bahan pangan berperan dalam mempengaruhi tangkat kesegaran, stabilitas, keawetan dan kemudahan terjadinya reaksi kimia, aktivitas enzim dan pertumbuhan mikroba (Kusnandar, 2010).

     Maksud dan tujuan

Maksud dari praktikum kimia pangan dengan materi kadar air yaitu agar praktikan mengetahui jenis air dalam bahan pangan.

Tujuan dari praktikum ini yaitu untuk mempelajari berbagai jenis atau tipe air dalam bahan pangan.

Ö      Air imbibisi

Ö     Air bebas dan terikat

Ö      Air Kristal

Ö      Aktivitas air

1   Waktu dan tempat

Praktikum kimia pangan dengan materi kadar air dilaksanakan pada 24-25 september 2012 pukul 08.00 WIB – 18.00 WIB di laboratorium THP Fakultas Perikanan dan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Brawijaya, Malang.


 PEMBAHASAN

 Analisa Prosedur

            Dalam praktium  materi kadar air  prosedur kerjanya yaitu pertama siapkan alat dan bahan. Alat yang digunakan adalah oven, desikator, washing bottle, tabung reaksi, botol timbang, dan tutupnya, timbangan analitik, rak  tabung reaksi, water bath, beker gelas 100 ml, crushable tank, pengaduk, stopwatch, beer gelas 100 ml, cawan petri, penjempit kayu, wadah plastic, dan thermometer. Bahan yang digunakan adalah air, silikagel, kertas label, agar sukrosa tepung beras, tapioca, dan trigu.

            Lalu sampel yang telah dipersiapkan yaitu tepung beras, tepung trigu, tapioca, dan agar masing-masing diberi campuran air deng`n perbandingan 1:90, 2:80, 3:70. Dan 4:60. Selain itu sampel juga dicampur dengan sukrosa dengan perbandingan 1:9:1, 2:8:2, 3:7:3, 4:6:4.

            Setelah dilakukan pencampuran masing-masing campuran sampel diambil 5 ml dan dimasukan kedalam tabung reaksi lalu tutup dan panaskan dalam water bath suhu 40,60, dan 100 c. lalu amati proses yang terjadi setiap 5 menit selama 30 menit dan didiamkan selama semalam.

            Keringkan botol timbang dalam oven suhu 105 c selama semalam dengan tutup setengah terbuka lalu di masukkan desikator selama 10-15 menit dan timbang berat botol timbang sebagai a.

            Lalu dimasukkan sampel kedalal botol timbang dan ditimbang sampel dengan botol sebagai b. sampel dan botol timbang ditimbang sebagai berat c. lalu hitung kadar air dan dicatat hasilnya.

            Menurut sudarmaji et al(2003), kadar air dalam bahan pangan ditentukan dengan cara berikut :

·         Metode Pengeringan (termografimetri)

·         Metode Destilasi(Tormografimetri)

·         Metode Kimiawi

·         Metode Fisis

·         Metode Khusus misal kromatografi nuklir magnetic resonansi

Kandungan air dalam bahan pangan ikut menentukan accept tabiliti, kesegaran, dan daya tahan pangan. Selain merupakan bagian dari suatu bahan pangan, air merupakan pencuci yang baik bagi bahan makanan atau alat yang akan digunakan dalam pengolahannya. Sebagian besar dari perubahan bahan pangan terjadi dalam media air ditambahkan atau berasal dari pangan itu sendiri(winarno,2004)

Analisa Hasil

           Dalam praktium  materi kadar air  di dapat hasil pada kelompo satu dengan sampel tepung tapioca didapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 28, 33 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 30,003 gr, berat sampel 1,67 gr, berat akhir 29,6504 gr dan hasil 21,07 %.

           Pada kelompok dua dengan sampel tepung beras di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 41,539 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 43,3293 gr, berat sampel 1,79 gr, berat akhir 42,4784 gr dan hasil 47,52 %.

           Pada kelompok tiga dengan sampel tepung terigu di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 26,306 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven  26,913 gr, berat sampel 1,66 gr, berat akhir 26,2509 gr dan hasil  43,31 %.

           Pada kelompok empat dengan sampel tepung beras di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 41,380 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 43,089 gr, berat sampel 1,709 gr, berat akhir 42,7646 gr dan hasil 62,66 %.

           Pada kelompok lima dengan sampel tepung beras di dapat hasil diambil rasio perbandingan 4:6 dengan berat botol timbang 35,7789 gr, berat sampel dan botol timbang setelah dioven 36,559  gr, berat sampel 1,780 gr, berat akhir  35,9456 gr  dan hasil  78,63 %.

            Dari data pengamatan didapat hasil kandungan air paling tinggi adalah 78,63 % pada kelompok 5 dengan sampel agar dan paling rendah yaitu 21,07 % pada kelompok 1 dengan sampel tepung maizena karena tepung maizena mengandung amilosa yang tinggi sehingga amilopektin rendah dan pada agar adalah sebaliknya.



PENUTUP

 

 Kesimpulan

 

Dari praktium  materi kadar air yang telah dilaksankan, didapat kesimpulan yaitu :

ü  Air merupakan bahan yang sangat penting bagi kehidupan manusia dan fungsinya tidak pernah dapat digantikan oleh senyawa lain

ü  Air digolongkan menjadi 4 jenis, yaitu :

a)      Air terikat : air yang terikat dengan unsure lain

b)      Air bebas : air yang tidak terikat seluruhnya oleh unsure lain

c)      Air murni : air yang tidak terikat dengan unsur-unsur lain

d)     Air yang terikat dengan jaringan matrix

ü  Air imbibisi adalah air yang masuk ke dalam bahan pangan dan menyebabkan pengembanhan volume tapi air ini tidak merupakan komponen penyusun bahan tersebut

ü  Kandungan air dalam bahan pangan mempengaruhi daya tahan bahan pangan terhadap serangan mikroba yang dinyatakan dengan Aw.

 Saran

Pada praktium  materi kadar air diharapkan agar alat pratikum dilengkapi agar pelaksaan praktikum bisa lancer dan maksimal.